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Unity WebGL 应用开发总结

luoriw 2024-01-18 13:15:03 后端开发 36 ℃ 0 评论

Unity WebGL 应用开发总结

1.开发环境

软件

版本


Unity

2020.1.0f1


PyCharm

2022.3.2


Python

3.7.3


2.编译WebGL

对 Unity 项目进行 WebGL 编译时,经常会出现如下问题:

1.Unable to parse Build/web.framework.js.gz! This can happen if build compression was enabled but web server hosting the content was misconfigured to not serve the file with HTTP Response Header “Content-Encoding: gzip” present. Check browser Console and Devtools Network tab to debug. 此时,通过 Build Settings -> PlayerSettings -> Publishing Settings 中勾选 Decompression Fallback(解压缩回退)。

2.Unable to parse Build/acWeb.framework.js.unityweb! The file is corrupt, or compression was misconfigured? (check Content-Encoding HTTP Response Header on web server) 此时,在 Build Settings -> PlayerSettings -> Other Settings -> Rendering

  • 将Color Space 设置为Gamma
  • 将Lightmap Encoding 设置为NormalQuality

然后重新构建即可。

3.获取 URL 请求参数

在项目的 Assets 文件夹下创建 Plugins\WebGL 目录,在 WebGL 目录下新建一个文本文件 xxx.jslib(如:QYPlugin.jslib),并在文件中编写函数如下:

var QYPlugin = {
    FindURLParameter : function()
    {
        var parameters = window.location.search;
        var bufferSize = lengthBytesUTF8(parameters) + 1;
        var buffer = _malloc(bufferSize);
        stringToUTF8(parameters, buffer, bufferSize);
        return buffer;
    } 
};
 
mergeInto(LibraryManager.library, QYPlugin);

其中的方法不要写错,否则会导致 unity 打包不成功的问题出现。

然后,在 C# 脚本中通过如下方式来调用:

1.在脚本中添加引用

 using UnityEngine;
 using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

2.引用

#if !UNITY_EDITOR&&UNITY_WEBGL
[DllImport("__Internal")]
private static extern string FindURLParameter();
#endif

3.在需要的位置调用方法

#if !UNITY_EDITOR&&UNITY_WEBGL
string urlParameter = FindURLParameter();
Globals.SessionId = urlParameter.Substring(1);
#endif

4.网络请求

对于 Unity' WebGL 应用,网络请求目前不支持 Socket 和 WebSocket,只支持 HTTP 请求方式,所以在一般情况下,后台采用 RestAPI 提供接口,Unity WebGL 通过 HTTP 方式连接到网络来执行网络请求并获取数据。

对于 Unity 的 HTTP 请求,支持三种方式:

  • WWW(基于协程,不适用于线程)
  • UnityWebRequest(基于协程,不适用于线程)
  • HttpWebRequest(C#原生的HttpWebRequest,同步接口,阻塞等待结果返回,适用于线程)

对于 WWW 目前官方已经不支持,其余两种方式在 WebGL 中只能使用 UnityWebRequest。

对 UnityWebRequest 请求的封装代码如下:

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;
using UnityEngine;
using UnityEngine.Networking;
using LitJson;
using UnityEngine.SceneManagement;

public class QYHttp : MonoBehaviour
{

    private static QYHttp _instance;

    public static QYHttp instance
    {
        get
        {
            if (_instance == null)
            {
                GameObject go = new GameObject("QYHttp");
                _instance = go.AddComponent<QYHttp>();
            }
            return _instance;
        }
    }

    public void PostFormRequest(string url, WWWForm form=null, Action<bool, string> callBack = null)
    {
        StartCoroutine(_PostForm(url, form, callBack));
    }

    private IEnumerator _PostForm(string url, WWWForm form=null, Action<bool, string> callBack = null)
    {
        if (form == null)
        {
            form = new WWWForm();
            form.AddField("tmp", "tmp");
        }
        
        UnityWebRequest request = UnityWebRequest.Post(url, form);
        request.SetRequestHeader("content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        request.downloadHandler = new DownloadHandlerBuffer();
        
        yield return request.SendWebRequest();
        
        string responseStr = "";
        if (request.isNetworkError || request.isHttpError)
        {
            responseStr = request.error;
        }
        else
        {
            responseStr = request.downloadHandler.text;
        }

        if (callBack != null)
        {
            callBack(request.isNetworkError || request.isHttpError, responseStr);
        }
    }
    
    public void PostAuthRequest(string url, JsonData data, Action<bool, string> callBack = null)
    {
        StartCoroutine(_PostAuth(url, data, callBack));
    }
    
    private IEnumerator _PostAuth(string url, JsonData data, Action<bool, string> callBack = null)
    {
        if (data == null)
        {
            data = new JsonData();
            data["tmp"] = "tmp";
        }

        data["authorization"] = Globals.TokenType + " " + Globals.AccessToken;
        string jsonstring = JsonMapper.ToJson(data);

        string ciphertext = QYEncrypt.AESEncryString(jsonstring);

        JsonData jsonData = new JsonData();
        jsonData["value"] = ciphertext;
        jsonData["size"] = jsonstring.Length;

        byte[] bytes = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(JsonMapper.ToJson(jsonData));
        UnityWebRequest request = new UnityWebRequest(url, "POST");
        request.uploadHandler = new UploadHandlerRaw(bytes);
        request.SetRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=utf-8");
        request.downloadHandler = new DownloadHandlerBuffer();
        
        yield return request.SendWebRequest();

        if (request.responseCode == 401) SceneManager.LoadScene("Scenes/ErrorScene");
        
        string responseStr = "";
        if (request.isNetworkError || request.isHttpError)
        {
            responseStr = request.error;
        }
        else
        {
            responseStr = request.downloadHandler.text;
        }

        if (callBack != null)
        {
            callBack(request.isNetworkError || request.isHttpError, responseStr);
        }
    }
}

以上代码封装的是两个 Post 方法,其中 PostFormRequest 是以表单数据为参数提交请求,PostAuthRequest 是携带请求令牌以 Json 数据为参数提交请求。

在携带请求令牌时没有使用 http Headers 的原因是:经过测试,通过 UnityWebRequest 的 SetRequestHeader 方法携带令牌在请求时不稳定,在服务端有时会出现获取不到令牌的情况。

所以,在封装 PostAuthRequest 方法时,使用了如下代码:

        data["authorization"] = Globals.TokenType + " " + Globals.AccessToken;
        string jsonstring = JsonMapper.ToJson(data);

        string ciphertext = QYEncrypt.AESEncryString(jsonstring);

        JsonData jsonData = new JsonData();
        jsonData["value"] = ciphertext;
        jsonData["size"] = jsonstring.Length;

将 authorization 参数直接写到 Json 格式的数据中,然后对 Json 字符串数据进行加密,加密后提交的数据只有两个字段:

  • value:加密后的字符串
  • size:原始字符串长度

5.数据传输

由于携带令牌出现了不稳定数据传输的情况,所以,我们将令牌与请求体合并通过 Json 格式进行数据传输,鉴于此,数据传输需要加密,加密采用的是 AES 算法,加密代码如下:

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;
using UnityEngine;

public class QYEncrypt
{
    private static string AesKey = "****************";  // 可以是16/24/32位
    public static string AESEncryString(string text)
    {
        byte[] bytes = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(text);
        RijndaelManaged rijndael = new RijndaelManaged();
        rijndael.Key = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(AesKey);
        // rijndael.IV = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(AesIv);
        rijndael.Mode = CipherMode.ECB;
        rijndael.Padding = PaddingMode.PKCS7;
 
        ICryptoTransform cryptoTransform = rijndael.CreateEncryptor();
        byte[] resultBytes = cryptoTransform.TransformFinalBlock(bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
 
        string AesStr = Convert.ToBase64String(resultBytes);
        return AesStr;
    }
    
    public static string AESDecryString(string text)
    {
        byte[] bytes = Convert.FromBase64String(text);
        RijndaelManaged rijndael = new RijndaelManaged();
        rijndael.Key = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(AesKey);
        // rijndael.IV = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(AesIv);
        rijndael.Mode = CipherMode.ECB;
        rijndael.Padding = PaddingMode.PKCS7;
 
        ICryptoTransform cryptoTransform = rijndael.CreateDecryptor();
        byte[] resultBytes = cryptoTransform.TransformFinalBlock(bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
 
        string AesStr = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(resultBytes);
        return AesStr;
    }
}

后端采用 Python 的 FastApi 实现 RestAPI ,后端的解密算法如下:

# coding: utf-8
import base64
from Crypto.Cipher import AES

AesKey = "*****************";  #可以是16/24/32位

def pkcs7padding(text):
    """明文使用PKCS7填充"""
    need_size = 16
    text_length = len(text)
    bytes_length = len(text.encode('utf-8'))
    padding_size = text_length if (bytes_length == text_length) else bytes_length
    padding = need_size - padding_size % need_size
    padding_text = chr(padding) * padding
    return text + padding_text


def AESEncryString(text=None):
    text =  pkcs7padding(text)
    aes = AES.new(key=AesKey.encode("utf-8"), mode=AES.MODE_ECB)
    en_text = aes.encrypt(text.encode('utf-8'))
    result = str(base64.b64encode(en_text), encoding='utf-8')
    return result


def AESDecryString(ciphertext=None):
    aes = AES.new(key=AesKey.encode('utf-8'), mode=AES.MODE_ECB)

    if len(ciphertext) % 3 == 1:
        ciphertext += "=="
    elif len(ciphertext) % 3 == 2:
        ciphertext += "="

    content = base64.b64decode(ciphertext)
    text = aes.decrypt(content).decode('utf-8')
    return text


if __name__ == '__main__':
    res = AESEncryString(text="hello,呼和浩特")
    print("加密后的密文是:",res)

    res = AESDecryString(ciphertext=res)
    print("密文解密后的明文是:",res)

后端令牌校验算法:

# Token校验
def verify_token(token: str, user_agent: str):
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, settings.SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[settings.ALGORITHM])
        logger.info(payload)
        sub = json.loads(payload['sub'])

        if sub['user_agent'] != user_agent:
            return False
    except Exception as ex:
        logger.info(str(ex))
        return False
    return True


async def authorized(request: Request):
    data: dict = await request.json()
    value = data.get('value')
    size = data.get('size')
    if value is None or size is None: return False

    plaintext = AESDecryString(value)
    print(plaintext)
    jsondata: dict = json.loads(plaintext[0:size])

    # 若不存在authorization则返回鉴权失败
    if not 'authorization' in jsondata.keys():
        return False

    authorization = jsondata.get('authorization')
    logger.info(authorization)
    # 若authorization类型不是Bearer则返回鉴权失败
    if not authorization.startswith('Bearer'):
        return False

    token = authorization[7:]
    logger.info(token)

    # 若令牌校验失败则返回鉴权失败
    logger.info(request.headers['user-agent'])

    if not verify_token(token, request.headers['user-agent']):
        return False

    return True

RestAPI 对应的业务代码中,需要在每次请求时对令牌进行校验,而不是在中间件中进行校验,其代码类似于:

@router.post(path='/save_all_devices')
async def save_all_devices(request: Request, value: str = Body(..., embed=True), size: int = Body(..., embed=True)):
    if (not await authorized(request)): raise HTTPException(status_code=401)

FastApi 跨域需要在主程序中增加代码如下:

app.add_middleware(
    CORSMiddleware,
    allow_origins=['*'],
    allow_credentials=False,
    allow_methods=["*"],
    allow_headers=["*"],
)

6.WebGL 页面自适应显示

Unity 项目编译为 WebGL 页面后,如果想要在浏览器中让页面自适应显示,需要对编译后的 html 文件和 css 文件做一些修改。对于 Unity 2020.1.0f1 版本编译后的调整记录如下:

  • 生成的 index.html:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-us">
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
    <title>Unity WebGL Player | devicefix</title>
    <link rel="shortcut icon" href="TemplateData/favicon.ico">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="TemplateData/style.css">
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id="unity-container" class="unity-desktop">
      <canvas id="unity-canvas"></canvas>
      <div id="unity-loading-bar">
        <div id="unity-logo"></div>
        <div id="unity-progress-bar-empty">
          <div id="unity-progress-bar-full"></div>
        </div>
      </div>
      <div id="unity-footer">
        <div id="unity-webgl-logo"></div>
        <div id="unity-fullscreen-button"></div>
        <div id="unity-build-title">devicefix</div>
      </div>
    </div>
    <script>
      var buildUrl = "Build";
      var loaderUrl = buildUrl + "/webgl.loader.js";
      var config = {
        dataUrl: buildUrl + "/webgl.data.unityweb",
        frameworkUrl: buildUrl + "/webgl.framework.js.unityweb",
        codeUrl: buildUrl + "/webgl.wasm.unityweb",
        streamingAssetsUrl: "StreamingAssets",
        companyName: "DefaultCompany",
        productName: "devicefix",
        productVersion: "0.1",
      };

      var container = document.querySelector("#unity-container");
      var canvas = document.querySelector("#unity-canvas");
      var loadingBar = document.querySelector("#unity-loading-bar");
      var progressBarFull = document.querySelector("#unity-progress-bar-full");
      var fullscreenButton = document.querySelector("#unity-fullscreen-button");

      if (/iPhone|iPad|iPod|Android/i.test(navigator.userAgent)) {
        container.className = "unity-mobile";
        config.devicePixelRatio = 1;
      } else {
        canvas.style.width = "1024px";
        canvas.style.height = "768px";
      }
      loadingBar.style.display = "block";

      var script = document.createElement("script");
      script.src = loaderUrl;
      script.onload = () => {
        createUnityInstance(canvas, config, (progress) => {
          progressBarFull.style.width = 100 * progress + "%";
        }).then((unityInstance) => {
          loadingBar.style.display = "none";
          fullscreenButton.onclick = () => {
            unityInstance.SetFullscreen(1);
          };
        }).catch((message) => {
          alert(message);
        });
      };
      document.body.appendChild(script);
    </script>
  </body>
</html>
  • 生成的 style.css:
body { padding: 0; margin: 0 }
#unity-container { position: absolute }
#unity-container.unity-desktop { left: 50%; top: 50%; transform: translate(-50%, -50%) }
#unity-container.unity-mobile { width: 100%; height: 100% }
#unity-canvas { background: #231F20 }
.unity-mobile #unity-canvas { width: 100%; height: 100% }
#unity-loading-bar { position: absolute; left: 50%; top: 50%; transform: translate(-50%, -50%); display: none }
#unity-logo { width: 154px; height: 130px; background: url('unity-logo-dark.png') no-repeat center }
#unity-progress-bar-empty { width: 141px; height: 18px; margin-top: 10px; background: url('progress-bar-empty-dark.png') no-repeat center }
#unity-progress-bar-full { width: 0%; height: 18px; margin-top: 10px; background: url('progress-bar-full-dark.png') no-repeat center }
#unity-footer { position: relative }
.unity-mobile #unity-footer { display: none }
#unity-webgl-logo { float:left; width: 204px; height: 38px; background: url('webgl-logo.png') no-repeat center }
#unity-build-title { float: right; margin-right: 10px; line-height: 38px; font-family: arial; font-size: 18px }
#unity-fullscreen-button { float: right; width: 38px; height: 38px; background: url('fullscreen-button.png') no-repeat center }

修改如下:

1.修改 index.html 文件中的如下内容:

<div id="unity-footer">

<div id="unity-footer" style="display:none;">

将页面中下面的 logo、应用名称、全屏按钮等隐藏掉。

2.修改 index.html 文件中的如下内容:

      if (/iPhone|iPad|iPod|Android/i.test(navigator.userAgent)) {
        container.className = "unity-mobile";
        config.devicePixelRatio = 1;
      } else {
        canvas.style.width = "1024px";
        canvas.style.height = "768px";
      }

将 else 语句体修改为:

        canvas.width = window.innerWidth;
        canvas.height = window.innerHeight;

3.在 style.css 文件的末尾增加如下代码:

html,body{width:100%;height:100%;margin:0;padding:0;overflow:hidden;}
#unity-canvas {width: 100%; height: 100%;}
#unity-container{width: 100%; height: 100%;}

7.WebGL 无法输入中文

Unity 发布为 WebGL 后,InputField 无法接受中文输入,原因为 Unity 在 WebGL 平台下对 IME 的支持有问题。Unity 与 IME 的官方描述:

解决方法:

使用github包【WebGLInput】,地址:https://github.com/kou-yeung/WebGLInput

包介绍:

WebGLInput

IME for Unity WebGL ( Support TextMesh Pro from Unity2018.2 )

support “copy and paste”

support "tab" and "shift+tab" change focus to other InputField

support mobile. (Experiment)

DEMO

https://unityroom.com/games/webglinput

How to use

1.download WebGLSupport.unitypackage and import to project

2.add "WebGLInput" Component to InputField GameObject

3.build and run!!

no need to setting anything.

insert \t use tab key instead of changing focus

Add "WEBGLINPUT_TAB" to Scripting Define Symbols.

and check "Enable Tab Text" at WebGLInput.

使用方法:

1、在工程中导入Unity包【WebGLSupport.unitypackage】

2、在需要输入中文的 InputField 组件上挂载脚本【WebGLInput】

8.模型质量不高,锯齿严重

发布项目之前要查看 Unity 的 Quality Settings 是否设置正确,当出现的问题是模型锯齿比较明显时,需要调整 Anti Aliasing 为8倍,默认是2倍;为了发布出来的项目更加适合于 WebGL,将 Level 设置为对应的选项,设置为 Very High 最为适合 WebGL。具体操作步骤:

Edit -> Project Settings -> Quality,设置 Anti Aliasing 为 8x;

在 Quality 设置的顶部 Quality 部分设置,对 Levels 为 WebGL 列的 Default 行选择 Very High;

设置好后 build 即可。

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